|The Global Warming
and Climate Change
|By Ronald E. Hughes
October 18th 2009
October 18, 2009
than $250,000.00 annually. President Obama now wants to impose an energy tax on every man, woman and
child in America. His cap and trade tax, contained in the Waxman-Markey Cap and Trade Bill, proposes to cap
manmade carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions 17% by 2020, and 83% by 2050. Ostensibly, this will save Earth
from dangerous global warming and catastrophic climate change. It will do nothing of the sort.
extra-terrestrial, physical, dynamical, chemical and cosmic processes interact in a non-linear dynamic system to
determine Earth’s temperature and climate. Global warming is caused primarily by solar insolation cycles due to
Earth’s changing orbit and axis of rotation. Manmade CO2 has little direct influence on global warming and
climate change. Weather cools the planet more than CO2 warms it. These facts are lost on climate change
practitioners who statistically smooth and tune weather from their unverifiable doomsday models.
Environmental extremists and politicians have seized on this misinformation to traumatize the public into
accepting government control of fossil fuel industries and eventually all industries.
In speeches to the U.N. General Assembly, during the week of September 22, 2009, President Obama warned:
“The threat from climate change is serious, it is urgent, and it is growing.”
“Rising sea levels threaten every coastline.”
“More powerful storms and floods threaten every continent.”
“More frequent drought and crop failures breed hunger and conflict…”
“The danger posed by climate change cannot be denied.”
President Obama does not realize that his words are fear-mongering nonsense. He is only repeating what
he has been advised to say. What is his source? The catastrophic climate change projections listed by the
President have been paraphrased from former Vice President Al Gore’s books, “Earth in the Balance” (1992)
and “An Inconvenient Truth” (2006) (AIT). Al Gore is not an atmosphere-ocean scientist. What expertise does
he have to support his “Dangerous Global Warming and Climate Change Theory”? Why is he promoting Cap
and Trade? In this report, we shall seek answers, to these questions, from Al Gore himself. His words will be
quoted directly from his books and highlighted in boldface type.
II. THE DANGEROUS GLOBAL WARMING AND CLIMATE CHANGE THEORY
Former Vice President Al Gore is the world’s leading proponent for capping manmade CO2 emissions.
President Obama’s U.N. speeches indicate that Gore is his principal technical and scientific advisor. Gore has
been promoting a phony “Dangerous Global Warming and Climate Change Theory,” in books, movies, lectures
and TV documentaries, for about twenty years. Gore describes his theory in AIT:
“Due to increasing concentrations of human-caused greenhouse gases in modern times, we are raising the
planet’s average temperature and creating dangerous changes in climate that we see all around us.
what the crisis is all about.”
“…there is one absolutely indisputable fact: Not only does human caused global warming exist, but it is
also growing more and more dangerous, and at a pace that has now made it a planetary emergency.”
“We are dumping so much carbon dioxide into the Earth’s environment that we have literally changed
the relationship between the Earth and the Sun.”
Gore clarifies this alarming finding by declaring that CO2 concentration in the atmosphere was 381-ppm (870-
billion tons of carbon equivalent) in 2005. U.S. fossil fuel use produced 1.63 billion tons of carbon equivalent in
2005. It takes inventive climate change modelers to transform these numbers into dangerous global warming,
requiring a Cap and Trade tax on all Americans.
Even if we believe climate change models that assume most heavier-than-air manmade CO2, remains in the
atmosphere, Earth’s history proves it is inconsequential to humanity. Over the ages, many external shocks
increased CO2 in the atmosphere up to ten times its present concentration. Nevertheless, mammals survived
Gore’s “Dangerous Global Warming and Climate Change Theory” is a political ploy. It has no scientific
validity. This will be demonstrated by evaluating the scientific data, empirical evidence and revealing thoughts
presented in his books.
III. AL GORE’S AGENDA:
Gore’s own words suggest that his objective is to allege dangerous global warming and climate change in order
to cripple the American fossil fuel industry, restrain technology and promote global governance of American
industry. He intends to exploit Cap and Trade for his financial gain. He writes:
“Our insatiable drive to rummage deep beneath the surface of the earth, remove all of the coal, petroleum, and other fossil
fuels we can find, then burn them as quickly as they are found-in the process filling the atmosphere with carbon dioxide and
other pollutants- is a willful expansion of our dysfunctional civilization into vulnerable parts of the natural world.” (1992)
“The misconception that there is a serious disagreement among scientists about global warming is actually an illusion that
has been deliberately fostered by a relatively small but extremely well funded cadre of special interests, including Exxon
Mobil and a few other oil, coal and utilities companies. These companies want to prevent any new policies that would
interfere with their current business plans that rely on the massive unrestrained dumping of global warming pollution into
the Earth’s atmosphere every hour of every day.” (2006)
Gore’s words reveal a long-standing visceral grudge against American fossil fuel producer- and user-companies.
He is furious that “These companies want to prevent any new policies that would interfere with their current business
plans…” What company would not oppose government interference in their business plans? These companies
are well aware that Gore wants to put them out of business or place them under government control.
“Unbelievable tragedies have been unfolding in the part of Africa that includes southern Sudan to the east of Lake Chad,
where genocidal murders have become commonplace in the region of Darfur. In Niger, just to the west of Lake Chad the
region wide drought has contributed to the famine conditions that put millions at risk. There are many complex causes of
the famine and genocide, but a little discussed contributing factor is the disappearance of Lake Chad.”
“In the debates that ignite around famine relief, it is sometimes implied that Africans have brought this upon themselves
through corruption or mismanagement. But the more we understand about climate change, the more it looks as if we may
be the culprit.” “The United States emits about a quarter of the world’s greenhouse gases while the entire continent of
Africa is culpable for only about 5% of it.” “…it is time to take a hard honest look at our role in this escalating disaster.
We helped manufacture the suffering in Africa, and we have a moral obligation to try to fix it.” (2006)
Gore’s anger is so palpable and contorted that he accuses the U.S. fossil fuel industry of contributing to famine
and genocide in Africa. If Gore had inquired, he could have learned that sediment studies indicate Lake Chad
dried up in 8500 B.C., 5500 B.C., 2000 B.C. and 100 B.C. He would have found that Lake Chad has been
disappearing due to population expansion and overuse of the lake’s waters and that the lake was nearly dry in
1908 and 1984. American-made CO2 was not responsible back then. It is not responsible today.
Lake Chad is a preview of the scientific misinformation and anti-American industry propaganda contained in
Gore’s books. Gore knows nothing about Meteorology, yet every weather event, resulting in damage, is
attributed to manmade CO2.
Gore intends to profit from, the Cap and Trade Bill. He writes:
“One goal of the Chicago Climate Exchange (CCX) is to figure how best to run a carbon market so that if and when our
government rolls out a national cap and trade program (as many expect it eventually will), the kinks will already be worked
“The CCX is leading the way toward a future in which reducing greenhouse gases could bring not only environmental
rewards, but financial ones too.” (2006)
“With my partner, … I also started Generation Investment Management, a firm devoted to proving that the environment
and other sustainability factors can be fully integrated into the mainstream investment process in a way that enhances
profitability for our clients, while encouraging businesses to operate more sustainably.” (2006)
Gore agonizes over American technology despoiling nature. He writes, “Our new technologies, combined with our
numbers, have made us collectively, a force of nature.” (2006)
Sustainability is Gore’s metaphor for doing without fossil fuels and restraining American technology. The Cap
and Trade Bill is a disaster for Americans. With oil companies forced to spend their exploration budgets
enriching commodity speculators, the U.S. will soon become dependent on foreign sources of oil. As we shall
see later, Cap and Trade could inadvertently destroy civilization.
Gore intends to solve America’s environmental problems by indoctrinating “people in their twenties” to the evils
of American fossil fuel industries and new technology:
“With my partner,…I started Current TV, a news and information cable and satellite network for young
people in their twenties, based on an idea that is, in our present-day society revolutionary: that viewers
themselves can make the programs and in the process participate in the public forum of American
Young people are already being brainwashed, in school and at home, by Gore’s books, movies and lectures,
the far-left TV and print media, the Alliance for Climate Education (ACE), the so-called “Educational” television
channels and the U.S. Government. Most TV documentaries about Earth come with an obligatory promotion of
the dangerous global warming and climate crisis hoax.
According to the Associated Press, Former Vice President Al Gore testifying before the Senate Foreign Relations
Committee, “pressed for decisive action on a bill to cap heat-trapping gases, saying that it is needed for the U.S
to take a leading role in negotiations on a new international climate treaty later this year.” Gore told the panel,
“We must face up to this urgent and unprecedented threat to the existence of our civilization…”
Gore is testifying to members of the U.S. Senate. How can he threaten Senators to “...face up to this urgent
and unprecedented threat to the existence of our civilization…?” This fear mongering fabrication is beyond
Gore, who won the Nobel Peace Prize for the climate change film, “An Inconvenient Truth,” spoke to the
World Forum on Enterprise and the Environment in Oxford, England recently. He said, “We have to have a
global agreement, and the way which we can get one is if politicians in each country act, and the only
way that can happen in turn is if awareness rises to the level to make them feel that it is a necessity. But
it is the awareness itself that will drive the change and one of the ways it will drive the change is through
global government and global agreements.”
Gore, who knows nothing about air-ocean science, appealed to politicians, who know nothing about air-ocean
science, to enter into global government and global agreements based on fear of global warming and catastrophic
climate change, about which they know nothing. The objective is global governance of fossil fuel and related
industries. This is the blind leading the blind to remake industrial societies into horse-and-buggy third-world
IV. THE MANMADE GLOBAL WARMING HOAX
Gore alleges, “…humans are the cause of most of the global warming that is taking place, and unless we
take quick action the consequences for our home could become irreversible.” Gore assumes that
manmade CO2 in the atmosphere causes dangerous global warming. This is the essence of his manmade global
warming hypothesis. Gore’s appeal for “quick action” is a tip-off that the threat of global warming cannot stand
scrutiny. In fact, the graphical evidence appearing in AIT proves manmade global warming is a hoax.
AIT provides a historical context. A graph displays CO2 and temperature for the past 650,000 years, derived
from Antarctic ice cores. The graph shows a series of ice ages separated by short interglacial warm periods. Our
present interglacial warm period was separated from the previous warm period by a 100,000-year ice age.
At the glacial maximum, 20,000 years ago, a sheet of ice, two-miles thick, covered thirty percent of North
America, Europe and Asia. Chicago was under a mile of ice. Between 20,000- and 10,000-years ago, a solar
insolation cycle, forced by Earth’s changing orbit and axis of rotation, caused overall surface temperature of the
planet to warm by 9 degrees F. This fastest temperature rise recorded in recent history was the initial warm-up
of the present interglacial warm period. Since then, melting glaciers and ice sheets have raised sea level by 300-
feet. Manmade CO2 cannot be blamed.
Gore’s 650,000-year graph displays CO2 and ice-core proxy temperatures perfectly correlated through the
beginning of the present interglacial. Since ice ages and interglacial warm periods are controlled by solar
insolation cycles, CO2 level, in the atmosphere, must be a function of temperature. This does not support the
manmade global warming hypothesis that planetary temperature is a function of CO2 in the atmosphere.
Gore neglects to mention that his graph shows temperature during the previous interglacial warm period was
much warmer than now. This suggests that the present solar insolation cycle has not run its course. It continues
to warm the planet and increase sea levels. Capping manmade CO2 cannot stop global warming.
In addition, during the present interglacial, the correlation between temperature and CO2 ceased. CO2 content is
higher and temperature colder now than during the previous interglacial. Thus, as CO2 increased, temperature
decreased. Again, Gore’s 650,000-year record contradicts his manmade global warming hypothesis.
More evidence of the global warming fiction is contained in an AIT graph labeled, “Global Temperature Since
1860, Combined Annual Land, Air, and Sea Surface Temperatures From 1860 to 2005.” The graph shows no
correlation between average planetary temperature (APT) and CO2. APT describes undulating decadal
oscillations while CO2 increases geometrically during the entire period.
According to AIT, CO2, in the atmosphere, increased from 290-ppm to
381-ppm, during the 145-year period. The global warming hypothesis would lead one to expect warmer than
normal APT during the period. Instead, it declined for 88-years and was colder than normal for 120-years. In
fact, by the late 1970’s, environmentalists were warning of global cooling and a return to the next ice age. APT
compared to atmospheric CO2 does not support the manmade global warming hypothesis.
This leaves only the 24-year period, from 1974 to 1998, to support Gore’s global warming hypothesis. This is
the only period during which a rapid increase in warmer than normal APT correlates with a similarly rapid
increase in CO2. But, a more rapid increase in APT occurred from 1916 to 1944 during a period of much
slower CO2 increase. The two correlation coefficients are far apart. These data do not support the global
From 1979 to 2005, APT was inflated. Cold temperatures from Siberia dropped out of the temperature data set
due to collapse of the Soviet Union. Heat islands expanded around airports and cities where land temperatures
are measured. In fact, satellite observations show no average warming of the lower troposphere from 1979
through 2008. Gore’s graph falsely shows maximum APT in 2005. Maximum APT occurred in 1998. Thus,
APT declined for the past 10-years, while CO2 increased rapidly by 14 ppm. Again, Gore’s global warming
hypothesis is debunked by the data.
Gore’s manmade global warming hypothesis is fiction. Gore knows it. He attempts to disguise his damaging
evidence by limiting the period to “modern times:” i.e. “Due to increasing concentrations of human-caused
greenhouse gases in modern times, we are raising the planet’s average temperature…” This must refer to
the last 25-years. Then why did Gore offer graphs with timelines extending back 650,000-, 1000- and 145-
years? Why did he place maximum APT in 2005 instead of 1998?
The Cap and Trade gang seems to have abandoned manmade global warming as a planetary emergency.
President Obama’s recent words to the U.N. General Assembly focused on catastrophic climate change. The
dangerous global warming hoax has now been replaced by the catastrophic manmade climate change hoax.
V. THE MANMADE CLIMATE CHANGE HOAX
Gore warns, “Today we are hearing and seeing dire warnings of the worst potential catastrophe in the
history of human civilization: a global climate crisis that is deepening and rapidly becoming more
dangerous than anything we have ever faced.” Gore restricts his timeline to, “…the history of human
civilization” or the period beginning 11,500 years ago. This conceals evidence that “…dangerous changes in
climate that we see all around us…” have actually occurred in the past before humans began contributing CO2
to the atmosphere.
Gore’s catastrophic climate changes caused by manmade CO2 include: melting Polar ice sheets and glaciers,
rising sea levels, more and stronger storms, floods, drought, desertification, large wildfires and soil moisture loss.
This is fear mongering fiction:
1. Melting Polar Ice Sheets:
Gore speculates, “We are melting the North Polar ice cap and virtually all of the mountain glaciers in the
world. We are destabilizing the massive mound of ice on Greenland and the equally enormous mass of
ice propped up on top of islands in West Antarctica, threatening a world wide increase in sea levels of as
much as 20 feet.”
Gore knows manmade CO2 is not the primary cause of Polar ice melting. In his earlier book, “Earth in the
Balance,” he wrote, “This massive (West Antarctic) ice sheet is believed to have broken up and slid into
the ocean during an interglacial warming period 125,000 years ago, raising sea levels twenty-three feet.”
Also, Greenland ice cores revealed an unusual warm phase 115,000 years ago. Thus, during the previous
interglacial warm period, the solar insolation cycle caused Polar ice sheets to melt and to increase sea levels
much higher than today. Locations of New York, Miami and New Orleans, as well as most other coastal cities,
were underwater. Humans were not responsible.
By restricting his timeline to the history of human civilization, Gore concealed massive Polar ice sheet melting
and sea level rises during the last warm period. If the West Antarctic ice sheet and the Greenland ice sheet melt
as they did back then, sea levels could rise another 40 feet. The sad fact is that man can do nothing about the
solar insolation cycle that is melting glaciers and Polar ice sheets now. Manmade greenhouse gases have little to
do with these catastrophic events.
Gore threatens, “Melting ice sheets are causing sea levels to rise, and if big sheets melt into the ocean,
many coastal cities around the world will flood and (200) million people will become refugees. These are
just some of the consequences of global warming.” The natural solar insolation cycle caused inundation of
coastlines in the previous interglacial and it will cause more coastal inundation during this interglacial.
Gore provides several maps projecting coastal cities being inundated, in the future. Inundation of human
settlements and structures has been going on since the beginning of civilization. A mega structure south of Japan
believed to be 10,000 years old is under 80 feet of water. A town at the eastern end of the Mediterranean Sea
believed to be 8000 years old is under 30 feet of water. Lake Ponchartrain filled by 16-feet, 3000 years ago.
Ever since, levees and floodwalls have been built and rebuilt higher. Even so, storm surge from Hurricane
Katrina topped some walls and undercut the foundation opposite the lake. Most major beach resorts have
barriers, jetties or walls to prevent beach erosion. Some of these restraints were originally built in the early
twentieth century and are constantly being built higher today. Humans must continue to build sea control
barriers higher and to move people away from coastlines. Capping CO2 will not stop Polar and glacial ice from
melting or sea level from rising.
2. Retreating Glaciers:
Gore blames retreating glaciers on man-caused carbon dioxide emissions. He refuses to accept that this might be
caused by natural cycles. Hannibal defeated the Romans by crossing the Alps with 50,000 men and 37
elephants, 2200 years ago. He could not do this now. Today, the route is covered with snow, ice and glaciers.
Was it man-caused warming or natural cycles that caused retreat and then advance of the Alps’ glaciers?
3. More and Stronger Storms:
Gore warns, “Global warming is linked to a significant increase in duration and intensity of
hurricanes.” And, “The voluminous evidence now strongly suggests that unless we act boldly and
quickly to deal with the underlying causes of global warming our world will undergo a string of terrible
catastrophes, including more and stronger storms, like Hurricane Katrina, in both the Atlantic and the
Gore believes the underlying cause of global warming is manmade CO2. He asserts that increasing manmade
CO2 is linked to a significant increase in duration and intensity of hurricanes.” In addition, he prescribes reducing
manmade CO2, boldly and quickly, to avoid more and stronger storms. If manmade CO2 is steadily
accumulating, in the atmosphere, more and stronger hurricanes should be observed during future hurricane
seasons. This hypothesis was tested in a study cited by Gore in AIT: “On July 31, 2005, less than a month
before Hurricane Katrina hit the United States, a major study from MIT supported the scientific
consensus that global warming is making hurricanes more powerful and more destructive.”
Gore cited the MIT study because he knew that powerful and destructive landfalling Hurricanes Charley,
Frances, Ivan and Jean in 2004 and Katrina, Rita and Wilma in 2005 support his storyline. However, instead of
validating Gore’s scientific consensus, the hurricane seasons of 2006 to 2009 disproved it. No major hurricane
has landed in the Continental U.S. since AIT was published. This is compelling evidence that manmade CO2
has no influence on hurricane frequency or intensity.
The MIT study is typical of published climate-change model projections that assume a linear atmosphere-
ocean dynamic system. Model predictions verify perfectly with test data. However, in time, the non-linear
atmosphere-ocean invariably trashes them.
Actually, the MIT model was a victim of its own success. Hurricanes become Category 3, or greater, by
reaching down deep into the water column for heat energy. A shallow layer of hot water will not fuel a major
hurricane. Hurricanes Charley, Frances, Ivan, Jean, Katrina, Rita and Wilma were so powerful and large that
they cooled Caribbean, West Atlantic and Gulf waters all the way down to the mixed layer depth. Subsequent
hurricanes have not had the depth of warm water required to become major hurricanes.
Recently the Associated Press reported, “July (2009) was the hottest the world oceans have been in almost
130 years of record keeping.” The report notes that Northeast Coast and Gulf waters are super warm this
summer. “…worsening man-made global warming,” is blamed. This is fearmongering hyperbole.
Manmade CO2 is not the cause of super-warm waters off the Northeast Coast and in the Gulf. From the
difference between day and night temperatures, we know that CO2 has little direct influence on sea surface
temperature. Heat energy is balanced at the ocean surface primarily by solar insolation, outgoing infrared
radiation, evaporation, precipitation and air-ocean advection.
Too few, and weak tropical cyclones over the past four years prevented cloud cover and precipitation from
cooling the ocean surface. Evaporative cooling was impaired by weak winds. Wind was too weak to mix warm
surface waters down below the seasonal thermocline. Warm water merely piled up at the surface. This means
that warm water has been accumulating near the sea surface for the past four years. A few strong hurricanes or
cold fronts are all that is needed to cool sea surface temperatures in the West Atlantic, Caribbean and Gulf.
The MIT climate model failure was also caused by unusual upper atmosphere conditions. It takes more than
warm water to make a major hurricane. The entire air column must be warm in order for the storm to exhaust
products of condensation in anticyclonic (clockwise) outflow aloft. In 2008 and 2009, unusually cold air
appeared at high altitudes over the western Atlantic and the Gulf. Cold air generates strong thermal winds,
which separate the tops from the bottoms of tropical cyclones, causing their demise. Also cold air generates
positive vorticity (cyclonic spin) at high altitudes. Positive vorticity prevents anticyclonic outflow. Either of
these dynamic factors will prevent tropical cyclones from intensifying.
Concentration of manmade CO2 is a minimum over oceans because trace gases are most dense at sources
and least dense near sinks. Convective circulation features, characterized by strong cyclonic winds and high
precipitation rates, require massive amounts of water vapor fuel. The only effective source is evaporation
directly from the ocean surface. Thus, manmade CO2 has little to no influence on hurricane or extratropical
Hurricanes are sustained by convection in thunderstorms surrounding a deep low-pressure center. The storm
is fueled by water vapor evaporated from the ocean surface and transported by high-speed surface winds
converging on the storm center. Anticyclonic outflow, at the upper levels of eye-wall and feeder-band
thunderstorms, sustains and intensifies the main storm.
The strongest extratropical storms are generated along a low-altitude horizontal temperature contrast or front
where potential energy resides. High altitude winds circulating through a positive vorticity cell create strong
upward vertical motion. When a positive vorticity advection cell moves over a surface front, dynamic upward
vertical motion is enhanced by latent heat of condensation. Upward vertical motion becomes intense resulting in
release of low-level potential energy and generation of a surface cyclone. The most intense surface cyclones
form on Polar and Arctic fronts over the oceans. Manmade CO2 has little influence on these storms (See
Appendix A for examples).
A similar process generates extratropical storms over land. U.S. storms generally form on a front, between
cool dry air from Canada and warm moist air from the Gulf. The most intense storms are triggered by a high
altitude cold low. Strong convection caused by positive vorticity advection in the southeast quadrant of the cold
low releases energy in the low level front and generates a surface cyclone. Thermal wind jet streams, above the
front, exhaust heat of condensation from the tops of thunderstorms. This process generates super-cell
thunderstorms and rapidly moving tornados, which can generate wind speeds greater than 300-mph. The
principal source of water vapor fueling these storms is evaporated, and transported by near-surface winds, from
the Gulf of Mexico. Manmade CO2 is not concentrated at the surface over the Gulf. Thus, it has little influence
on generation and intensification of these powerful storms (See Appendix A for examples).
Gore’s “scientific consensus, that manmade global warming is making cyclones more powerful and more
destructive,” has no valid scientific basis. Climate change models cannot resolve the fine scale of convective
circulation systems. Instead, the models assume that homogeneously distributed manmade CO2 heats the
atmosphere, increasing its holding capacity for water vapor. This manmade “global warming,” stored water
vapor might increase planetary precipitation but it has little influence generating stronger storms.
The MIT study demonstrates the futility of predicting hurricane duration and intensity, years in advance (climate
change). It also proves wrong Gore’s hypothesis and the scientific consensus that manmade CO2 is causing
more and stronger storms. Gore does not seem to understand that climate change models do not predict number
and evolution of cyclones, fronts, thunderstorms and tornados. These convective circulation features are not
generated or sustained by manmade CO2.
Hurricanes and strong extratropical storms have taken a terrible toll on humans and their possessions since the
beginning of recorded history. Manmade global warming was not the cause then. It will not be the cause in the
4. Floods, Drought, Desertification, Famine, and Soil Moisture:
Gore blames man-made global warming for floods, droughts, desertification, famine and forest fires. Geological
evidence finds these weather related disasters dating back 200 million years. They have been plaguing humanity
since the beginning of recorded history. If there is any recent increase in severity of these events, it is because
human habitation has encroached on natural habitat, not because of manmade CO2.
Levees, walls and other flood control systems restrict most major rivers. Wetlands have been drained.
Construction encroaches on flood plains. Heavy and persistent precipitation cannot be contained. Unusual
circulation system intensity or movement, not CO2, causes record precipitation events.
Drought is caused by persistent or stalled circulation systems. Often high precipitation amounts in one region
result in dry conditions elsewhere. Droughts can affect one area for many years. The Dust Bowl Drought, in
the Plains States during the 1930’s, lasted nearly a decade. Drought was not the only cause of the Dust Bowl.
Farmers had replaced drought resistant grasses with wheat. The wheat crops failed exposing the land to fierce
wind erosion. Famine in the Midwest was caused as much by man as by nature. The same can be said for most
famines around the world. A rapidly expanding human population’s need for drinking water and waste disposal
as well as agricultural irrigation and overgrazing caused the Lake Chad famine. Laying the blame for drought
and famine on American fossil fuel use is nuts.
5. Forest Fires:
Recent wildfires in California were the subject of a CBS “60 Minutes” program on September 6, 2009. The
question of how such fires grew so large was asked of a University expert. Without hesitation he said the huge
fires were the result of a Forest Service policy adopted 60-years ago, not to clear underbrush in the forests.
That was not the desired answer. With encouragement from the CBS commentator, a Forest Service
representative laid the blame on the drought and heat. The commentator then distorted his comments to blame
the huge size of the fires on global warming. This is typical media global warming hyperbole.
6. Soil Moisture Content:
Gore instructs, “…with the help of modern super-computers and sophisticated climate models, it
(average temperature and CO2) can be projected many years ahead to measure the future impact of
choices we are making today.” Gore is mistaken. Modern super-computers and sophisticated climate models
cannot accurately predict planetary temperature, “many years ahead.” Sophisticated climate models are
theoretical. They are not capable of forecasting specific space-time climate events. Even if it were possible to
accurately specify all initial conditions, the non-linear atmosphere prevents an accurate prediction of mass-
structure (temperature) beyond about ten days.
Gore displays two maps to demonstrate that, “Soil moisture evaporation increases dramatically with higher
temperatures in the United States.” The first map “…shows what is projected to happen to soil moisture in
the United States with the doubling of CO2, which would happen in less than 50 years if we continue
business as usual. …it will lead to a loss in soil moisture of up to 35% in vast growing areas of our
Evidently, doubling CO2 is not frightening enough for Gore. His second map is titled, “Projected soil moisture
reduction with quadrupling of CO2.” He warns, “Scientists are now telling us that if we do not act quickly
to contain global warming pollution, we will soon barrel right through doubling of CO2 and move
toward a quadrupling, in which case scientists tell us, most of the United sates would lose up to 60% of
its soil moisture. How do we debate something as cataclysmic as this in the traditional framework of our
We debate something as cataclysmic as this by recognizing that it is phony. Climate change models can be tuned
to produce whatever the modeler wants to see. Climate change models rarely have a responsible validating
mechanism. That is they won’t be verified against real weather. For example, climate projections fifty years
from now will not be verified against the actual atmosphere. The climate change modelers will not be around by
then. Climate change model projections are generally verified by comparison with other climate change models.
Since the Federal Government funds most climate change research, the models that receive funding are those
that conclude humans are causing global warming and catastrophic climate change. Deniers are not funded. A
Federal Government climate research budget, exceeding $5 billion, assures that the dangerous global warming
and catastrophic climate change hoax will continue to terrify most Americans and influence legislation.
VI. THE ATMOSPHERIC CARBON DIOXIDE HOAX
Gore’s finding, “We are dumping so much carbon dioxide into the Earth’s environment that we have
literally changed the relationship between the Earth and the Sun,” is based on a chart of CO2
measurements observed over Mauna Loa Volcano, Hawaii. CO2 increased there, from 315- to 381-ppm,
between 1958 and 2005. Gore extended the Mauna Loa record with Antarctic ice-core proxies: “…the chart
has now been extended backward by 650,000 years, …” “In Antarctica, measurements of CO2
concentrations and temperatures go back 650,000 years.” “At no point in the last 650,000 years before
the preindustrial era did the CO2 concentration go above 300-ppm.” “Here’s where CO2 is now (381-
ppm)-way above anything measured in the prior 650,000 year record.”
We shall see that Gore’s 650,000-year record conceals plants and animals flourishing under much higher CO2
concentrations, before this period.
“And within 45 years this is where the CO2 equivalent levels will be (650-ppm) if we do not make
dramatic changes quickly.”
Gore is incorrect. Projecting CO2 equivalent levels requires predicting atmospheric mass-structure in order to
determine efficiency of the general circulation in delivering CO2 to its sinks. Atmospheric mass-structure cannot
be predicted accurately beyond two-weeks. Efficiency of land and ocean sinks must also be predicted. Suffice
to say it is impossible to accurately predict CO2 equivalent levels out to 45-years.
“But if we allow this to happen (650-ppm), it would be deeply and unforgivably immoral. It would
condemn future generations to a catastrophically diminished future.” This is more fear mongering
Later, we shall consult Earth’s history to find that a CO2 level of 650-ppm would not damage humanity’s
Gore exposes flaws in his graph by defending it: “There is not a single part of this graph- no fact, data or
number-that is controversial in any way or in dispute by anybody.” His defense is not compelling. The
graph includes inconsistent and suspect data-points. Antarctic temperature and CO2 measurements are ice-core
proxies. Recent CO2 measurements are direct measurements from Mauna Loa volcano in Hawaii. The two
data sets are inconsistent.
The 315- to 381-ppm CO2 measurements are supposed to be representative of the entire atmosphere. This
assumption is suspect. Gore explained that the Mauna Loa observation site, “in the middle of the Pacific
Ocean,” was chosen “because samples taken there would be untainted by local industrial emissions.”
The Mauna Loa observation site is twelve miles southwest of Hilo International Airport and ten miles southeast
of Kona International Airport. Kilauea volcano, on the slopes of Mauna Loa, has been erupting since 1983.
Low level prevailing winds blow from Hilo and Kilauea toward Mauna Loa. High level prevailing winds blow
from Kona toward Mauna Loa. CO2 measurements, from Mauna Loa, are enhanced daily by aircraft engine
emissions. During the cold season, convection causes industrial and volcanic emissions to contaminate the CO2
Gore neglects to mention some important data points in his 650,000-year graph: The lowest temperature was
recorded only 20,000-years ago at the glacial maximum of the longest ice age recorded (100,000-years). CO2
concentration varied between 160- and 280-ppm. These levels are dangerously low. At these levels, a drop of
one tenth of one percent in solar intensity could trigger an ice age. To understand the significance of these data
points, it is necessary to place this graph in context with Earth’s history:
700-million years ago (MYA), Earth became encased in a thick ice sheet from the Poles to the Equator. CO2
levels were extremely low. Most solar insolation was reflected back to space. It could not melt the ice. Except
for microbes, in and under the ice, Snowball Earth was a dead planet. Then volcanism became active. It
opened holes in the ice, warmed the ocean and introduced greenhouse gases into the atmosphere. This
combination melted the ice and brought the planet to life.
Plants and animals appeared on land about 570-MYA. CO2 concentrations, in the atmosphere, were much
higher than today. Earth’s climate was predominantly warm and moist. The Poles were ice-free. Rainforests,
verdant plains and lush wetlands covered most land. At one point the dense vegetation sustained herbivores
weighing 20-tons. Several external shocks caused CO2 to spike temporarily to 4000-ppm. Nevertheless,
mammals survived and flourished.
Earth entered an ice age between 355- and 280-MYA. Low CO2 levels in the atmosphere and higher levels in
the oceans and on land accompanied this ice age. Land plants and animals prevailed.
60-MYA, extreme volcanism associated with separation of the North American and European plates caused CO2
to spike up to 2000-ppm. Mammals, birds and amphibians on both sides of the new Atlantic Ocean
55-MYA, Earth’s surface abruptly heated 9 to 18 degrees F, due to undersea out- gassing of methane. CO2
levels increased from about 500-ppm to around 2000-ppm. The abrupt warming allowed warmth-loving species
to migrate from Asia to North America and Europe, across land bridges that ran through the Arctic Circle.
(Doubling CO2 levels from present levels would not cause the devastation to humanity feared by Gore.)
Low and declining levels of CO2 accompanied ice ages 34- and 23- MYA. Glaciers advanced for 400,000
years and 200,000 years respectively. The reason for these ice ages is not known.
Declining volcanism and changing ocean currents forced Earth into the most recent ice age, 2-MYA. The
climate became cold and dry. Rainforests moved equatorward. Deserts covered nearly a third of the planet.
Ice covered the Poles. Ice sheets and glaciers advanced and receded according to natural solar insolation cycles
caused by Earth’s changing orbit and axis of rotation. Vegetation sustained 9-ton herbivores.
Several massive extinctions, due to external shocks, spared small animals. This suggests damaged ecosystems
failed large herbivores and, in turn, the carnivores that dined on them. Extinction of 9-ton herbivores and large
carnivores occurred only 12,000 years ago. This extinction might be related to the last long ice age and its
extension for another 4000 years due to external shocks. Vegetation now sustains 4-ton herbivores. Major land
animals are Earth’s “canaries in the coal mine.” Their declining size, over time, traces the trend in decreasing
CO2 and rainfall. The trend is toward a return to Snowball Earth.
The previous interglacial warm period was much warmer than today. This suggests that the present solar
insolation cycle will continue to warm the planet. Glaciers and the Polar ice caps will continue to melt and cause
sea levels to rise further. This natural global warming might cause more animal extinctions. However, this will
be a small price to pay compared to the return of an ice age. Evident in Gore’s graph is that Earth is
approaching the end of the present interglacial warm period. The three previous interglacials lasted for 12,000
years. The present interglacial is approaching that duration.
Humanity resides on a small planet that has a propensity for slipping into protracted ice ages. Civilization will be
destroyed by the next ice age. Agricultural output will be severely reduced. Migration of most North Americans
and Eurasians to near equatorial regions will cause massive human extinctions due to war and famine. This
bleak scenario will inevitably occur unless volcanism becomes more active or humans can introduce enough CO2
into the atmosphere to prevent the solar insolation cycle from causing ice sheets to move toward the Equator. In
this context, Cap and Trade could have catastrophic and irreversible consequences.
Gore should be delighted with a 381-ppm atmospheric CO2 concentration. Far from causing catastrophic global
warming, it is well below the maximum levels that nurtured land plants and animals for most of the past 570-
million years. Earth’s climate is comfortable. Humanity flourishes. Global warming is not a planetary
emergency. More warming means increasing precipitation and more bountiful ecosystems. Most important,
there is less chance that Earth will slip into the next ice age.
VII. SCIENTIFIC CONSENSUS
Gore’s global warming and climate crisis theory is propaganda for promoting Cap and Trade and global
governance. Gore knows it. He covers up inconsistencies in his theory with a highly combative defense. He
claims that his global warming theory is “settled science” and “the debate is over.” This is nonsense. No
atmosphere-ocean scientist would honestly agree that global warming and climate change, caused by humans, is
settled science. Nor is it not debatable. Professional scientists welcome debate of opposing viewpoints.
Scientific journals and conferences promote debate and peer reviews.
Gore accuses anyone who takes issue with his global warming theory, “a denier,” as in holocaust denier. Gore
accuses scientists who differ with him as being paid by oil companies. He says their intent is to fool and confuse
the public. He holds deniers up for scorn. Two of these deniers have reputations as among this country’s
foremost Meteorologists. These men, ridiculed by Gore in his books and movies, know more about atmosphere-
ocean dynamics than Gore and all of his climate change advisors put together.
Demonizing those who hold differing scientific opinions might be appropriate for the political process but it is
unprofessional in science. After all, the purpose of science is to discover truth. Gore seems only interested in
forcing political actions with his global warming theory. Gore’s messages, “Be very afraid” and “Differ with me
at your peril,” bespeak an ulterior motive. We know this motivation as Cap and Trade and global governance of
industry and technology.
Gore claims, “Two thousand scientists, in a hundred countries, working for more than 20 years in the
most elaborate and well-organized scientific collaboration in the history of humankind, have forged an
exceptionally strong consensus that all the nations on earth must work together to solve the crisis of
global warming.” This is beyond comprehension. How have two thousand scientists been so brainwashed?
Could it be that the U.S. Government climate modeling budget exceeds $5 billion? It is well recognized that U.S
and European government bureaucrats fund research of believers but not deniers.
Could the reason for believers signing on to the global warming hoax be political? That must be what happened,
“On June 21, 2004, when 48 Nobel Prize-winning scientists accused President Bush and his
administration of distorting science.” They signed the following statement: “By ignoring scientific
consensus on critical issues such as global climate change [President Bush and his administration] are
threatening the Earth’s future.” These scientists are experts in chemistry, medicine and physics. None are
atmosphere-ocean scientists. How can they evaluate “global climate change” as a critical issue? How can they
honestly accuse President Bush and his administration of threatening Earth’s future? How does Gore have the
audacity to publish a list of politically influenced Nobel Prize winners, in his 2006 book that includes “Truth” in
VIII. THE WORST SCAM EVER PERPETRATED ON U.S. TAXPAYERS
catastrophe.” Implicit in the President’s words is the fraud that manmade CO2 is the cause of global warming
and imminent climate change. The President’s words go beyond just fear mongering nonsense. He is charging
the U.N. to, “stop imminent climate change.” This means, stop burning fossil fuels. The only way for this to
happen is for governments to seize control of fossil fuel-exploration, -production and –user industries. Dictators
and monarchs have already nationalized fossil fuel industries. Thus, the President must be proposing that free
world governments assume control of their fossil fuel industries. When that is done, global governance of the
industry will have been achieved. This is the ultimate goal of environmental extremists and far-left politicians.
President Obama’s Cap and Trade legislation is intended to eventually stop U.S. exploration, production and use
of fossil fuels. When the U.S. fossil fuel industry has been crippled, the U.S. economy will, indeed, suffer an
irreversible catastrophe. The U.S. economy will be consigned to third world status, with a horse and buggy
U.N. members will be delighted to see the U.S. destroy its economy with such insane legislation. China and
India refuse to follow the U.S. lead. Their scientists know that manmade global warming and catastrophic
climate change is a hoax. These scientists are free to speak the truth because they do not depend on the U.S.
Government for research funds.